Resources‎ > ‎

Climate Finance Fundamentals 2015

This series of short introductory briefings on various aspects of international climate finance are designed for readers new to this critical area. In light of the fast pace of developments in climate finance, the briefs allow the reader to gain a better understanding of the quantity and quality of financial flows going to developing countries. 

The briefs outline the principles of public climate finance; the emerging global climate finance architecture; and address the instruments, needs and actual funding amounts in the action areas of adaptation, mitigation and forest protection (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, REDD-plus). Several look specifically at the climate funding situation for specific regions of the world.

Annual Climate Finance Fundamentals since 2010 can be accessed in our archive.

1. The principles and criteria of public climate finance – a normative framework

Authors: Liane Schalatek (HBS) and Neil Bird (ODI)

This Brief looks at the three sequential phases relating to the mobilization, administration and the disbursement of climate change funding.Taken together, they offer a minimum guiding framework for climate finance, based on the principles and criteria briefly examined here.

English                 Español                 Français

2. The evolving global climate finance architecture

  • Climate finance architecture

    Authors: Smita Nakhooda, Charlene Watson (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS) 

  • This Brief investigates the evolution of climate finance, describing the main actors and initiatives that have been active to-date.

    English                  Español               Français

    3. Climate finance thematic briefing - Adaptation finance


      Authors: Nella Canales Trujillo, Charlene Watson, Alice Caravani, Sam Barnard and Smita Nakhooda (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS)

      This Brief looks at the challenge for the international community to ensure adequate levels of funding for adaptation activities in vulnerable developing countries.

      English               Español               Français

    4. Climate finance thematic briefing - Mitigation finance

    • Mitigation

    • Authors:Sam Barnard, Alice Caravani, Smita Nakhooda (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS)
    This Brief describes the funds that have been created by industrialized countries to finance emission reductions in developing countries and examines how these funds can work with private capital to secure the level of funding needed.

    5. Climate finance thematic briefing - REDD-plus finance

    • REDD-plus

    • Authors: Marigold Norman, Alice Caravani, Smita Nakhooda, Charlene Watson (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS)

      REDD-plus finance has received a lot of attention over recent years. This Brief describes the funding initiatives in support of this major international mitigation strategy and raises some ongoing challenges for the equitable delivery of climate finance.

    6. Regional briefing: Latin America

    • Latin America

    • Authors: Nella Canales Trujillo, Smita Nakhooda, Alice Caravani (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS)

    This Brief describes international climate finance that is being channelled to countries in Latin America to fund national climate change actions. It looks at funding across the major themes of adaptation, mitigation and REDD-plus, as well as identifying the principal actors within the region.

    7. Regional briefing: Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Sub-Saharan Africa
      Authors: Marigold Norman, Sam Barnard, Smita Nakhooda, Alice Caravani (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS)

    Africa is the region that has contributed the least to global greenhouse gas emissions but is the most vulnerable to the impact of climate change. This brief assesses the extent to which international climate finance is flowing to support African countries to increase their resilience and adopt low-emission development pathways.

    8. Regional briefing: Asia-Pacific

    • Asia

    • Authors: Sam Barnard, Smita Nakhooda, Alice Caravani (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS)

      Asia is home to a diverse assortment of countries, including some of the world's most populous and vulnerable. It is the region that has received the most international climate funding, which so far has concentrated on supporting mitigation activities.

    9. Regional briefing: Middle East & North Africa

    • MENA

    • Authors: Sam Barnard, Smita Nakhooda, Alice Caravani (ODI) and Liane Schalatek (HBS)
    The Middle East and North Africa is a region that is both vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and shares some responsibility for such change, as measured in terms of per capita emissions. International public sources that fund climate change projects in the region are extremely scarce.

    10. Gender and climate finance

    • Gender

    • Authors: Liane Schalatek (HBS) with Smita Nakhooda (ODI)

      This brief outlines some key principles and actions for making climate financing instruments more gender-responsive.

    11. The design of the Green Climate Fund

    • Green Climate Fund
    Authors: Liane Schalatek (HBS), Smita Nakhooda and Charlene Watson (ODI)

    This note describes the Green Climate Fund design process, and outlines key points of tension.

    12. Small Island Developing States (SIDS)


    Authors: Alexis Durand, Liane Schalatek (HBS) and Charlene Watson (ODI)

    This brief explores climate financing for this especially vulnerable group of island nations.