Global climate finance architecture

The global climate finance architecture is complex: finance is channeled through multilateral funds – such as the Global Environment Facility and the Climate Investment Funds – as well as increasingly through bilateral channels. In addition, a growing number of recipient countries have set up national climate change funds that receive funding from multiple developed countries in an effort to coordinate and align donor interests with national priorities.

There is generally much more transparency about the status of implementation of multilateral climate finance initiatives than of bilateral climate finance initiatives. The proliferation of climate finance mechanisms increases the challenges of coordinating and accessing finance.

The architecture of the funds


Implementing Agencies and Institutions
  • AfDB - African Development Bank
  • ADB - Asian Development Bank
  • AFD - French Development Agency
  • BMZ - Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development
  • CIDA - Canadian International Development Agency
  • DECC - Department of Energy and Climate Chage
  • DEFRA - Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
  • DFAT - Department of Foreign Affairs ad Trade (Australia)
  • DFID - Department for International Development
  • EBRD - European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • EIB - European Investment Bank
  • Ex-Im - Export-Import Bank of the United States
  • FAO - Food and Agriculature Organisation
  • FFEM - French Global Environment Facility 
  • GIZ - German Technical Cooperation
  • IADB - Inter American Development Bank
  • IFAD - International Fund for Agricultural Development
  • JBIC - Japan Bank of International Cooperation
  • JICA - Japan International Cooperation Agency 
  • KfW - German Development Bank
  • MIES - Interministerial Taskforce on Climate Change 
  • MOFA - Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • NORAD - Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation 
  • ODIN - Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • OPIC - Overseas Private Investment Corporation
  • UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
  • UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
  • USAID - U.S. Agency for International Development
  • WB - World Bank

Multilateral funds and Initiatives

Bilateral Funds and Initiatives

Additional resources

Climate Finance Fundamentals

Including overviews of the regional and thematic distribution of climate finance, and developments with regards to the Green Climate Fund.